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Skrapar in Antiquity


Historically Skrapar has been inhabited since 600 BC. Archaeological findings in this area refer to two historical times. The first is the creation of the Neolithic cultures associated with the process of differentiation of social groups. While the second has to do with the convergence of these cultures from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age, which proves the existences of the city’s Illyrian roots. This is a direct continuation of the Mesolithic, as witnessed by the numerous discoveries “mikrolitike”, the presence of coarse pottery placed found from the times of 400-500 BC. Interestingly, the archaeological findings in cave dwellings. So Radeshi in the cave was found a rich archaeological inventory of crockery and bones.

The findings

During the Iron Age in this area was known as a peaceful Illyrian city. This is evidenced by archaeological findings, including ornamental tools and inventory from the peroid. In the region of Skrapar, traces of material culture most complete Leshnje finds himself in the village of Liqedhit. Here is a residence at about 2.5 m depth. The process of development of culture Liqedhit confirms the formation of cultural communities Illyrian. Settlements of Skrapar are divided into three main types or groups: open settlements, fortified settlements and cave dwellings. Other discoveries are the necropolis and the archaeological finds. The discoveries were made in the three valleys that cross the region. The materials that are found in these tombs were decorated with ceramic styles.


Origin of the name

To explain the origin of the name of the region that has the same name that also led after the Illyrian tribes who lived in this area, we should mention the explanation given by Apiani, who writes: “This place got its name from Ilir, son of polyphenols. Her children were Eneleu, Autari, Darden, Medium, and Taulanti Perrebi, while the daughters were Partha, Daortha, Dasara etc.. from which the various names of the Illyrian tribes. ”Daretia stretched from the river bank to the lake and Vjosa Lychnid (Ohrid today). The city of Lyhnid (City of Ohrid) has also become the center of Koinonia Desaretia.

Up to the Middle Ages

According to archaeological evidence in the 400-200 BC the city life in the territories of the Illyrian tribe of Desarete had greater development. Part of this area is thought to have also been the Illyrian city of Zelencka. This city is considered by archaeologists as the one that gave rise to the current Corovode. This connection is based both in the objects found, that in the large number of place names.

The city of Zelencka was built on both sides of the river Osumi, connected to each other by the Bridge of Sharova, of which today are preserved cells, 1.5 m high. Today the existing bridge still stands over where the original was built.

From the 2nd century BC, and for many centuries later, much of the data was not preserved or lost from this time. Only during 600 AD during the period of the barbarian slave invasions, this city is mentioned, but now with a new name Cernovode (Black Water), today Corovode. Life at this time was organized in the castle above the city. From the Architectial point of view, the remains of this castle are similar to those of Berat and Irmaj in Gramsh and to the castle of Zgerdhesh in Kruje. Some of the most famous castles in the history of the territory of Skrapar are: the Castle of Lavdar of Dhores, Bregu of the Koronit of Bargullas and Prishta.
The traditions of city life in the castle and fortified dwellings of Skrapar, have been preserved even in the present day. This castle was built in the same period of the castle of Tomorri. The castle of Skrapar was built on top of the Hill of Cerove, which is opposite to the city, and is separated from it by the River Osumi.
Another indicator, the continuity of life in the Middle Ages to Skrapar, is the construction of the hamam. Typical of the area are the bathrooms Slatinje the village, 5 km south-west of Corovode. Slatinja is a village still inhabited where the bathrooms are kept in good condition. Scholars think that these baths are unique, not only Skrapar, but all over the country.


Skrapar in the XV-XIX

In the early decades of the fifteenth century the Turks were under control by Cameria in Albanian territories in the south of the River source. Wherein a military commander, while the civil life was appointed Qadi, who was directly by the sultan. The Ottoman occupation brought serious consequences for the population of Skrapar. Anyway, even during this period Skrapar had its development and distinguished himself by his rebellion against the Turkish administration.

The Austrian historian Karl Patch, provides very important data related to this territory. In his notes he tells of a road that started from the city of Berat and after passing through a part of the valley of Osumi, turned to the east, in the Castle of Tomorri, cut horizontally in the valley of Tomorrica and ended in Korce.
The presence of an inter-regional road network and is confirmed by the presence of numerous bridges, that are characterized by solid technical construction. Because of their strategic importance mention the bridge Kasabash and Sharova.
The Bridge Kasabash is rightly considered a cultural monument of great architectural value. It is perceived designed by the Kasemi, of European fame. This bridge is kept in good condition and continues to act as a point of connection in the area even today.
The Bridge Sharova and Kasabash are built on the two branches of the River Osumi. They are located 1 km from the city of Corovode. It is thought to have been built around 1500-1700. The construction of these bridges allowed for communication in the neighboring provinces. Since then he has increased the flow of economic exchanges with the great centers of trade, especially Berat and Korce.
In the late nineteenth century, Albania was ruled by Turkish together Epirus, Macedonia, Rumelia and the coastal strip from Macedonia to Constantinople. In this historical context we understand the importance of the League of Prizren in 1878 that promoted the idea of a national state, and established the modern Albanian alphabet.

During the First World War

In 1912 there was a Balkan crisis due to a weakening of Turkey subsequent to the Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912). The small Balkan nations took advantage and began the first unrest in Albania led by Esad Pasha . November 28, 1912 took place the declaration of independence of Albania.

At the request of the Queen of Romania Elisabeth of Wied, was proposed Prince William of Weid as the first prince of Albania.
In the south of the country consist of regular military forces with the addition of Greek volunteers from Crete, had proclaimed in Gjirokastër the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus.
Even Skrapar during the First World War was a theater of war. Skrapar in the territory, in the period 1915-1918 has established ties to the armies of Italy, Austria-Hungary and France, which were located on the left side of the Osumi. The troops supported the people who were saving Skrapar after the atrocities of the Greeks to the Constitution of the Republic of Epirus. Patriots including Koprencka Spathara Ali Mustafa, Avni Kapinova, Riza Kodheli, Ali Farmaqi, Servet Zaloshnja etc., along with assistance from foreign powers, have helped to solve the national question and preserve the territorial integrity.


Between the wars

After the 1924 Albania Republic was proclaimed and Zog took over establishing a constitutional monarchy. On 7 April 1939, Italy of Mussolini and the Italian militarily occupied Albania and Zog was forced to flee. Five days later, the Albanian parliament proclaimed the new king Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, who then assumed the title King of Albania.

During the Second World War

Skrapar united in the the war against Italy is divided into three phases: the first begins April 7, 1939 and continued until the end of 1941, the second phase begins with the creation of the partisan CETA (Skrapar is the first province to be a strength partisan) until September 5, 1942. The third phase ends with the capitulation of fascist Italy, September 8, 1 One of the fronts of the war to Greece was Skrapar. During the occupation the Italian Militia recruited many boys from Skrapar. The refusal of some has led to protests and reactions so as to initiate the first response Italians accomplished in the fort of Malinda where they disarmed more than 120 people. In revenge, a series of bombings were lead in the Italian territory of Skrapar. In March 1942, saw the establishment of the first core partisan Skrapar responsible for the entire region of Berat. The creation of this group is the gradual transition to the armed insurrection with several ambushes against the Italian military. In December 1942, the Italian army was completely destroyed and Çorovodë was released for the second time. The inhabitants revealed that they have taken with bread and feed many of the Italians who were delivered without resistance. Riza Cerová was the largest partisan battalion in the District and the first in the whole region of Berat.

After the Second World War, under the leadership of Enver Hoxha, the Albanian Communist Party took power on November 29, 1944, despite continued attacks on the nationalist components, already close to the occupying forces.
Under Communism Skrapar was an area rich in wood industries and preserves. Nearby, Polican was a leader in the war industry in Albania. Many of the local caves were used for the storage of weapons and ammunition.